People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Amar Shonar Bangla
(and largest city)
|Ethnic groups (1998)||98% Bengali
|Unitary parliamentary democracy|
|–||Prime Minister||Sheikh Hasina|
|–||Chief Justice||Md. Muzammel Hossain|
|–||Declared||March 26, 1971|
|–||Current constitution||November 4, 1972|
|–||Total||147,570 km2 (94th)
56,977 sq mi
|–||2011 estimate||142,319,000 (9th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2010 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2010 estimate|
|Gini (2005)||33.2 (medium)|
|HDI (2011)||0.500 (low) (146th)|
Drives on the
|Adjusted population, p.4,|
Bangladesh (i/ˈbɑːŋɡlədɛʃ/ or i/bæŋɡləˈdɛʃ/; Bengali: বাংলাদেশ), officially the People’s Republic of Bangladesh (Bengali: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh) is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India and Myanmar and by the Bay of Bengal to the south. The capital (and largest city) is Dhaka, located in central Bangladesh. The official state language is Bengali. The name Bangladesh means “Country of Bengal” in the official Bengali language. Many Bengali people are of Burmese descent, due to some Burmese immigrants fleeing from Burma at the time of the Burmese War.
The borders of present-day Bangladesh were established with the partition of Bengal during the reign and demise of the British Empire. Its map was chartered by Sir Cycil Radcliffe during the creation of Pakistan and India in 1947, when the region became East Pakistan, part of the newly formed nation of Pakistan. Due to political exclusion and economic exploitation by the politically-dominant West Pakistan, popular agitation grew against West Pakistan and led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, after the declaration of Independence on March 26, 1971. After the Bangladesh Forces of M.A.G. Osmani heavily defeated the Pakistan army strongholds in the major sectors during the tough seasons of March to October, (BDF Sectors 11, 2, 4 and 5) the Indian Army swooped in with the help of the BDF forces and negotiated a cease-fire and surrounded the Dhaka Area. After Independence, the new state endured an inept and corrupt administration, nationalising all aspects of life, that resulted in famines, poverty, widespread corruption, as well as political turmoil and unrest in the civil and military administration. The restoration of order in late 1975 brought back confidence and hope back into the lives of the citizens and the country. Since 1991 has been followed by relative calm and economic progress.
Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy, with an elected parliament called the Jatiyo Sangshad. It is the ninth most populous country and among the most densely populated countries in the world. Just like in the rest of South Asia the poverty rate prevails, although the United Nations has acclaimed Bangladesh for achieving tremendous progress in human development. Geographically, the country straddles the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and is subject to annual monsoon floods and cyclones.
The country is listed among the Next Eleven economies. It is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the D-8 and BIMSTEC, and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement. However, Bangladesh continues to face a number of major challenges, including widespread political and bureaucratic corruption, widespread poverty, and an increasing danger of hydrologic shocks brought on by ecological vulnerability to climate change.
Remnants of civilization in the greater Bengal region date back four thousand years, when the region was settled by Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, and Austro-Asiatic peoples. The exact origin of the word “Bangla” or “Bengal” is not known, though it is believed to be derived from Bang, the Dravidian-speaking tribe that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE.
The kingdom of Gangaridai was formed from at least the 7th century BCE, which later united with Bihar under the Magadha, Nanda, Mauryan and Sunga Empires. Bengal was later part of the Gupta Empire and Harsha Empire from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE. Following its collapse, a dynamic Bengali named Shashanka founded an impressive short-lived kingdom. After a period of anarchy, the Bengali Buddhist Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years, followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty.
Medieval European geographers located paradise at the mouth of the Ganges and although this was overhopeful, Bengal was probably the wealthiest part of the subcontinent until the 16th century. The area’s early history featured a succession of Hindu empires, internal squabbling, and a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance.
Islam was introduced to the Bengal region in the 12th century by Arab Muslim merchants; Sufi missionaries, and subsequent Muslim rule helped spread Islam throughout the region. Bakhtiar Khilji, a Turkish general, defeated Lakshman Sen of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal in the year 1204. The region was ruled by several sultans, Hindu states and land-lords–Baro-Bhuiyans for the next few hundred years. By the 16th century, the Mughal Empire controlled Bengal, and Dhaka became an important provincial centre of Mughal administration.
The Maratha Empire, a Hindu empire which overran the Mughals in the 18th century, also devastated the territories controlled by the Nawab of Bengal between 1742 and 1751. In a series of raids on Bengal and Bihar, then ruled by the Nawab, Maratha demolished much of the Bengali economy, which was unable to withstand the continuous onslaught of Maratha for long. Nawab Ali Vardi Khan made peace with Maratha by ceding the whole of Orissa and parts of Western Bengal to the empire. In addition, this a tax – the Chauth, amounting to a quarter of total revenue – was imposed on other parts of Bengal and Bihar. This tax amounted to twenty lakhs (of rupees?) for Bengal and 12 lakhs for Bihar per year. After Maratha’s defeat in Panipat by a coalition of Muslim forces, the empire returned under the Maratha general Madhoji Sindhia and raided Bengal again. The British Empire stopped payment of the Chauth, invading the territory of Bengal in 1760s. The raids continued until Maratha was finally defeated by the British over the course of three Anglo-Maratha Wars, lasting from 1777 to 1818.
From 1517 onwards, Portuguese traders from Goa were traversing the sea-route to Bengal. Only in 1537, were they allowed to settle and open customs houses at Chittagong. In 1577, Mughal emperor Akbar permitted the Portuguese to build permanent settlements and churches in Bengal. The influence of European traders grew until the British East India Company gained control of Bengal following the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The bloody rebellion of 1857—known as the Sepoy Mutiny—resulted in transfer of authority to the crown with a British viceroy running the administration. During colonial rule, famine racked South Asia many times, including the war-induced Great Bengal famine of 1943 that claimed 3 million lives.
Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones, with Dhaka being the capital of the eastern zone. When the exit of the British Empire in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines, with the western part going to newly created India and the eastern part (Muslim majority) joining Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan), with its capital at Dhaka. In 1950, land reform was accomplished in East Bengal with the abolishment of the feudal zamindari system. Despite the economic and demographic weight of the east, however, Pakistan’s government and military were largely dominated by the upper classes from the west. The Bengali Language Movement of 1952 was the first sign of friction between the two wings of Pakistan. Dissatisfaction with the central government over economic and cultural issues continued to rise through the next decade, during which the Awami League emerged as the political voice of the Bengali-speaking population. It agitated for autonomy in the 1960s, and in 1966, its president, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Mujib), was jailed; he was released in 1969 after an unprecedented popular uprising. In 1970, a massive cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan, killing up to half a million people, and the central government responded poorly. The Bengali population’s anger was compounded when Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, whose Awami League won a majority in Parliament in the 1970 elections, was blocked from taking office.
After staging compromise talks with Mujib, President Yahya Khan and military officials launched Operation Searchlight, a sustained military assault on East Pakistan and arrested him in the early hours of 26 March 1971. Yahya’s methods were extremely bloody, and the violence of the war resulted in many civilian deaths. Chief targets included intellectuals and Hindus, and about one million refugees fled to neighbouring India. Estimates of those massacred throughout the war range from thirty thousand. Mujibur Rahman was ultimately released on 8 January 1972, due to direct US intervention.
Awami League leaders set up a government-in-exile in Calcutta, India. The exile government formally took oath at Meherpur, in Kustia district of East Pakistan on 17 April 1971, with Tajuddin Ahmad as the first Prime Minister and Syed Nazrul Islam as the Acting President.
The Bangladesh Liberation War lasted for nine months. The Bangladesh Forces formed within 11 sectors led by General M.A.G. Osmani consisting of Bengali Regular forces conducted a massive guerilla war against the Pakistan Forces with support from the Mukti Bahinis consisting of Kaderia Bahni, Hemayet Bahini, and others financed and equipped by Indian Armed Forces Maj. Gen. Sujat Singh Uban. Indian Army swooped in with the help of the BDF forces and negotiated a cease-fire and surrounded the Dhaka Area. The Indian Army remained in Bangladesh until March 19, 1972.
After its independence, Bangladesh became an Indian army installed Awami League government, with Mujib as the Prime Minister, without holding any elections. In the 1973 parliamentary elections, the Awami League gained an absolute majority. A nationwide famine occurred during 1973 and 1974, and in early 1975, Mujib initiated a one-party socialist rule with his newly formed BAKSAL. On 15 August 1975, Mujib and most of his family members were assassinated by mid-level military officers. Vide President Khandaker Mushtaq Ahmed was sworn in as President with most of Mujib’s cabinet intact. Two short uprisings occured within the Army personnel. One on 3 November and the other on 7 November 1975. The uprisings culminated into the reorganised structure of power. Emergency was declared to restore order and calm, Mushtaq resigned and the country was placed under temporary martial law, with three service chiefs serving as DCMLA’s while the new president Justive Abu Satem as CMLA. Lieutenant General Ziaur Rahman, exchanged seat of the presidency in 1977 as Justice Sayem resigned. President Zia reinstated multi-party politics, introduced free markets, and founded the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). Zia’s rule ended when he was assassinated by elements of the military in 1981.
Bangladesh’s next major ruler was Lieutenant General Hossain Mohammad Ershad, who under the tutelage and guidance of India, gained power in a coup on March the 24th 1982, and ruled until December 6, 1990, when he was forced to resign after a massive revolt of all major political parties and the public, along with pressure from western donors (which was a major shift in international policy after the fall of the Soviet Union). Since then, Bangladesh has reverted to a parliamentary democracy. Zia’s widow, Khaleda Zia, led the Bangladesh Nationalist Party to parliamentary victory at the general election in 1991, and became the first female Prime Minister in Bangladeshi history. However, the Awami League, headed by Sheikh Hasina, one of Mujib’s surviving daughters, won the next election in 1996. It lost again to the Bangladesh Nationalist Party in 2001.
On 11 January 2007, following widespread political unrest spear headed by the Awami League, the Bangladesh civil and military establishment supported a caretaker government. The caretaker government was appointed to administer the next general election. The country had suffered from extensive corruption, disorder and political violence. The new caretaker government has made it a priority to root out corruption from all levels of government. To this end, many notable politicians and officials, along with large numbers of lesser officials and party members, have been arrested on corruption charges. The caretaker government held what it itself described as a largely free and fair election on 29 December 2008. At the publicd utter disbelief, the Indian backed Awami League’s Sheikh Hasina won the elections with a landslide victory and took the oath of Prime Minister on 6 January 2009.
 Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Bangladesh
See also: Constitution of Bangladesh
Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban houses the Parliament of Bangladesh and is one of the largest legislative complexes in the world.
National symbols of Bangladesh
|Amar Shonar Bangla|
|Oriental Magpie Robin|
|White Water Lily|
Bangladesh is a unitary state and parliamentary democracy. Direct elections in which all citizens, aged 18 or over, can vote are held every five years for the unicameral parliament known as Jatiya Sangsad. The parliamentary building is known as the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban and was designed by architect Louis Kahn. Currently the parliament has 345 members including 45 reserved seats for women, elected from single-member constituencies. The Prime Minister, as the head of government, forms the cabinet and runs the day-to-day affairs of state. While the Prime Minister is formally appointed by the President, he or she must be an MP who commands the confidence of the majority of parliament. The President is the head of state but mainly a ceremonial post elected by the parliament.
However the President’s powers are substantially expanded during the tenure of a caretaker government, which is responsible for the conduct of elections and transfer of power. The officers of the caretaker government must be non-partisan and are given three months to complete their task. This transitional arrangement is an innovation that was pioneered by Bangladesh in its 1991 election and then institutionalized in 1996 through its 13th constitutional amendment.
The Constitution of Bangladesh was drafted in 1972 and has undergone 14 amendments. The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court. Justices are appointed by the President. The judicial and law enforcement institutions are weak. Separation of powers, judicial from executive was finally implemented on 1 November 2007. It is expected that this separation will make the judiciary stronger and impartial. Laws are loosely based on English common law, but family laws such as marriage and inheritance are based on religious scripts, and therefore differ between religious communities.
Major parties in Bangladesh are the Bangladesh Awami League, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami (BJI). BNP is led by Khaleda Zia and has politically been allied with Islamist parties like Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami but practice secular politics. Sheikh Hasina‘s Awami League aligns with more leftist parties. Hasina and Zia are bitter rivals who have dominated politics for over 15 years; each is related to one of the leaders of the independence movement. Another important player is the Jatiya Party, headed by former military dictator Ershad. The Awami League-BNP rivalry has been bitter and punctuated by protests, violence and murder. Student politics is particularly strong in Bangladesh, a legacy from the liberation movement era. Almost all parties have highly active student wings, and student leaders have been elected to the Parliament.
Two radical terrorist organizations, Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB) and Jama’atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), were banned in February 2005. Several small-scale bomb attacks taking place since 1999 have been blamed on those groups, and dozens of suspected members have been detained in security operations, including the heads of those two parties in 2006. The masterminds were tried and executed. The Bangladesh government won praise from world leaders, including Western leaders, for its strong anti-terrorist stance.
On 11 January 2007, following widespread political unrest, a caretaker government was appointed to administer the next general election. The January 22, 2007 election was postponed indefinitely and emergency law declared on January 11, 2007 as the Army backed caretaker government of Fakhruddin Ahmed aimed to prepare a new voter list and crack down on corruption. They also assisted the interim Government of Bangladesh in a drive against corruption, which resulted in Bangladesh’s position in Transparency International‘s Corruption Perceptions Index changed from the very bottom, where they had been for 3 years in a row, to 147th in just 1 year. A large alliance led by the Bangladesh Awami League won the December 29, 2008 poll, in a landslide victory. They got 230 seats among 300 seats in the parliament.
 Foreign relations and military
Bangladesh pursues a moderate foreign policy that places heavy reliance on multinational diplomacy, especially at the United Nations. In 1974 Bangladesh joined both the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations and has since been elected to serve two terms on the Security Council in 1978–1979 and 2000–2001. In the 1980s, Bangladesh played a lead role in founding the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in order to expand relations with other South Asian states. Since the founding of SAARC 1985, a Bangladeshi has held the post of Secretary General on two occasions.
Bangladesh’s most important and complex foreign relationship is with India. This relationship is informed by historical and cultural ties and is strengthened because of India’s involvement of liberating the people of Bangladesh from Pakistan. This forms an important part of the domestic political discourse. Bangladesh’s relationship with India began on a positive note because of India’s assistance in the independence war and reconstruction. Throughout the years, relations between both countries have fluctuated for a number of reasons.
A major source of tension between Bangladesh and India is the Farakka Dam. In 1975, India constructed a dam on the Ganges River 11 mi (18 km) from the Bangladeshi border. Bangladesh alleges that the dam diverts much needed water from Bangladesh and adds a man-made disaster to the country already plagued by natural disasters. The dam has had terrible ecological consequences. There are other sources of tension between the nations. India has voiced concerns about anti-Indian separatists and Islamic militants allegedly being harboured across their 2,500 mi (4,000 km) border, as well as the flow of illegal migrants, and is building a fence along most of it. However, at the 2007 SAARC meeting both nations pledged to work cooperatively on security, economic and border issues.
The current strength of the army is around 200,000 including reservists, the air force 22,000, and navy 19,000. In addition to traditional defence roles, the military has been called on to provide support to civil authorities for disaster relief and internal security during periods of political unrest. Bangladesh is not currently active in any ongoing war, but it did contribute 2,300 troops to the coalition that fought in Operation Desert Storm in 1991 and Bangladesh is consistently a top (10,736) contributor to UN peacekeeping forces around the world. As of May 2007, Bangladesh had major deployments in Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan, Timor-Leste and Côte d’Ivoire.
Bangladesh enjoys relatively warm ties with the People’s Republic of China which has, particularly in the past decade, increased economic cooperation with the South Asian nation. Between 2006 and 2007, trade between the two nations rose by 28.5% and there have been agreements to grant various Bangladeshi commodities tariff-free access to the Chinese market. Cooperation between the Military of Bangladesh and the People’s Liberation Army is also increasing, with joint military agreements signed and Bangladesh procuring Chinese arms which range from small arms to large naval surface combatants such as the Chinese Type 053H1 Missile Frigate.
 Divisions, districts and upazilas
Bangladesh is divided into seven administrative divisions, each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal (বরিশাল), Chittagong (চট্টগ্রাম), Dhaka (ঢাকা), Khulna (খুলনা), Rajshahi (রাজশাহী), Sylhet (সিলেট), and Rangpur (রংপুর).
Divisions are subdivided into districts (zila). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions, with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. There are no elected officials at the divisional, district or upazila levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Direct elections are held for each union (or ward), electing a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates.
Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. Other major cities include Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Barisal, Bogra, Comilla, Mymensingh and Rangpur. These cities have mayoral elections, while other municipalities elect a chairperson. Mayors and chairpersons are elected for a span of five years.
City population (2008 estimate)
Metro population (2008 estimate)
 Geography and climate
Main article: Geography of Bangladesh
See also: Flooding in Bangladesh
Satellite image presenting physical features of Bangladesh
Boats are a major method of transportation in Bangladesh, a floodplain with more than 700 rivers.
Bangladesh is in the low-lying Ganges–Brahmaputra River Delta or Ganges Delta. This delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna also known as “Yamuna”), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial soil deposited by these rivers has created some of the most fertile plains in the world. Bangladesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers, making water issues politically complicated to resolve – in most cases as the lower riparian state to India. Most parts of Bangladesh are less than 12 m (39.4 ft) above the sea level, and it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 m (3.28 ft).
In southeast Bangladesh, experiments have been done since the 1960s to ‘build with nature’. By implementing cross dams, the natural accretion of silt has created new land. With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began to help develop this new land in the late 1970s. The effort has since become a multiagency operation building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers. By fall 2010, the program will have allotted some 27,000 acres (10,927 ha) to 21,000 families.
The highest point in Bangladesh is in Mowdok range at 1,052 m (3,451 ft) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to the southeast of the country. Cox’s Bazar, south of the city of Chittagong, has a beach that stretches uninterrupted over 120 km (75 mi).
Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladeshi climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, a hot, humid summer from March to June. A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country’s rainfall. Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. The cyclones of 1970 and 1991 were particularly devastating. A cyclone that struck Bangladesh in 1991 killed some 140,000 people.
In September 1998, Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history. As the Brahmaputra, the Ganges and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, 9,700 km (6,000 mi) of road and 2,700 km (1,700 mi) of embankment 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless with 135,000 cattle killed, 50 km2 (19 sq mi) of land destroyed and 11,000 km (6,800 mi) of roads damaged or destroyed. Two-thirds of the country was underwater. There were several reasons for the severity of the flooding. Firstly, there were unusually high monsoon rains. Secondly, the Himalayas shed off an equally unusually high amount of melt water that year. Thirdly, trees that usually would have intercepted rain water had been cut down for firewood or to make space for animals.
Bangladesh is now widely recognized to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water & food security, human health and shelter. It is believed that in the coming decades the rising sea level alone will create more than 20 million climate refugees. Bangladeshi water is contaminated with arsenic frequently because of the high arsenic contents in the soil. Up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water. Bangladesh is among the countries most prone to natural floods, tornados and cyclones. Also, there is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country. Evidence shows that tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically. It has been shown that rainy-season flooding in Bangladesh, on the world’s largest river delta, can push the underlying crust down by as much as 6 centimeters, and possibly perturb faults.
 Climate change and infectious diseases
Bangladesh has been one of the victims of climate change. From 1971 to 1998, there have been greater temperature variations between seasons: higher temperatures during the monsoon season and slightly lower temperatures in the winter. The temperature increase in monsoon season has been greater than the temperature decrease in winter. Thus, the overall mean annual temperatures have been increasing. These trends in temperature variations are expected to become more pronounced in the years to come. By the year 2100, it is expected that the annual mean maximum temperatures will increase by 0.88 °C and the annual mean minimum temperatures will decrease by 0.11 °C. These two trends combined will result in an increase of 0.39 °C in the overall annual mean temperature. Small changes like these can have a great effect on climate and natural disasters. Increase in temperature will cause mild melting of the Himalayan glaciers, which along with an expected overall monsoon rainfall increase of 588.65 mm by the year 2075 will result in increased severe flooding in inland areas. It is also expected that floods will be followed by drought due to a significant decrease in precipitation during the winter months.
Bangladesh is also facing a greater rate of sea level rising than other countries, with an increase of to 4.0 m to 7.8 m on different coastal stations. Such sea level rises will submerge low lying coastal areas and will result in salt water intrusion into aquifers and rivers. Lack of fresh drinking water, inability to grow crops, and submerged low-lying coastal areas could result in displacement of six to eight million people by the year 2050.
 Water-borne and food-borne diseases
The evidence about the burden of infectious diseases in Bangladesh comes from government agencies, international agencies, and epidemiological investigations. The outbreaks of diarrheal diseases are associated with changes in precipitation patterns; heavy rainfall events are likely to compromise the supply of fresh water, thus increasing the risk of water borne diseases. They are associated with floods and water logging that increases the incidence of diarrhea, cholera, skin, and eye diseases. Rising sea levels increase the risk of coastal flooding and necessitate population displacement, causing many other health related problems such as diarrheal diseases and malnutrition. Indirectly transmitted infectious diseases are likely to be influenced by climate change, especially waterborne diseases.
Due to global warming, the pattern of rainfalls in Bangladesh has been changed both in intensity and timing. Many infectious diseases in Bangladesh now have a direct relationship with rainfall patterns. For example, some diarrheal diseases of Bangladesh are found to reach their peak during the rainy season. Heavy rainfall is known to have led to the outbreaks of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Increased incidence of these diseases is likely to become a regular event in Bangladesh.
The rise in temperatures also increases infectious disease incidence. Escherichia coli diarrhea in Bangladesh has a seasonal peak that correlates with high temperatures. An increase in rotavirus, a diarrheal disease that primarily affects infants and children, has been linked to temperature rise and river level rise. In Dhaka, rotavirus cases have been reported to increase by 40.2% for each 1 °C increase in temperature above 29 °C. Rotavirus cases also increase by 5.5% per 10 centimeter river level rise. Further, cholera has been well studied and its incidence has been linked to rise in sea level height and temperatures, which produces the environment necessary for the cholera toxin-producing bacteria (Vibrio cholerae). Satellite data analyses of cholera in Bangladesh have proven that cholera epidemics are climate-linked. It has been concluded that rise of temperature due to global warming may increase diarrheal diseases in Bangladesh.
 Vector-borne diseases
Climate change is like to have important effects on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases in Bangladesh. Changes in climate are likely to lengthen the transmission seasons of important vector-borne diseases, and alter their geographic range. Dengue, formerly unknown in Bangladesh, is rapidly replicating due to rising temperatures. Already dengue is an emerging disease in the major cities of Dhaka and Chittagong. The number of malaria cases has dramatically risen over the past several decades. Records show that the incidence of malaria increased from 1556 cases in 1971; to 15375 cases in 1981; to 30,282 cases in 1991; and to 42,012 in 2004. Japanese encephalitis is also increasing in prevalence and is an emerging cause of encephalitis in Bangladesh. Higher rates of breeding in mosquitoes can accelerate the transmission of Japanese encephalitis. Visceral leishmaniasis is another disease that is increasing in prevalence as a result of flooding. Its cases cluster near flood embankments where standing water creates the environment for mosquito breeding. Building more embankments, a likely response to sea-level rise, may result in increase in the number of cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh instituted a Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan in 2008 that includes addressing health and infrastructure, however there is still much work to be done to protect the country from the effects of climate change.
 Flora and fauna
Royal Bengal Tiger
A major part of the coastline comprises a marshy jungle, the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world and home to diverse flora and fauna, including the Royal Bengal Tiger. In 1997, this region was declared endangered. The Magpie Robin is the National Bird of Bangladesh and it is common and known as the Doyel or Doel (Bengali: দোয়েল). It is a widely used symbol in Bangladesh, appearing on currency notes and a landmark in the city of Dhaka is named as the Doyel Chatwar (meaning: Doyel Square). The national flower of the country is water lily, which is known as Shapla. The national fruit is jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), which in Bengali is known as Kathal. In late 2010, the Bangladeshi government selected the Mango tree as the national tree.
Main article: Economy of Bangladesh
Worker in a paddy field – a common scene throughout Bangladesh. Two thirds of the population works in the agricultural sector.
At April 2010, USA – based ratings agency Standard & Poor’s (S&P) awarded Bangladesh a BB- for a long term in credit rating which is below India and well over Pakistan and Sri Lanka in South Asia. And, despite continuous domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a developing nation. However, Bangladesh gradually decreased its dependency on foreign grant and loan from 85% (In 1988) to 2% (In 2010)  for its annual development budget. Its per capita income in 2010 was US$641 compared to the world average of $8,985. But, if purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, Bangladesh’s economy is the 44th largest in the world at US$257 billion according to the IMF.
Jute was once the economic engine of the country. Its share of the world export market peaked in the Second World War and the late 1940s at 80% and even in the early 1970s accounted for 70% of its export earnings. However, polypropylene products began to substitute for jute products worldwide and the jute industry started to decline. Bangladesh grows very significant quantities of rice, tea, potato, mango, onion and mustard. According to FAOSTAT, Bangladesh is one of world’s largest producers of: Rice (4th), Potato (11th), Mango (9th), Pineapple (16th), Tropical Fruit (5th), Onion (16th), Banana (17th), Jute (2nd), Tea (11th).
Although two-thirds of Bangladeshis are farmers, more than three quarters of Bangladesh’s export earnings come from the garment industry, which began attracting foreign investors in the 1980s due to cheap labour and low conversion cost. In 2009–10 fiscal year the industry exported US$ 12.6 billion worth of products where in 2002 the exported amount was US$ 5 billion. Recently[when?] Bangladesh has been ranked as the 4th largest clothing exporter by the WTO (The World Trade Organization) . whereas, according to The Economist Bangladesh is world’s third-largest clothes-export industry The industry now employs more than 3 million workers, 90% of whom are women. A large part of foreign currency earnings also comes from the remittances sent by expatriates living in other countries.
Worlds biggest ship breaking yard in Chittagong,Bangladesh
Obstacles to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, mismanaged port facilities, a growth in the labour force that has outpaced jobs, inefficient use of energy resources (such as natural gas), insufficient power supplies, slow implementation of economic reforms, political infighting and corruption. According to the World Bank, “among Bangladesh’s most significant obstacles to growth are poor governance and weak public institutions.” Despite these hurdles, the country has achieved an average annual growth rate of 5% since 1990, according to the World Bank.
Bangladesh has seen expansion of its middle class (world’s fifty-fourth largest, just below of Singapore & Vietnam), and its consumer industry has also grown. In December 2005, four years after its report on the emerging “BRIC” economies (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), Goldman Sachs named Bangladesh one of the “Next Eleven“, along with Egypt, Indonesia, Vietnam and seven other countries.
Bangladesh has seen a dramatic increase in foreign direct investment. A number of multinational corporations and local big business houses such as Beximco, Square, Akij, Ispahani, Navana Group, Transcom Group, Habib Group, KDS Group, T.K Group Of Industries, Dragon Group and multinationals such as Unocal Corporation and Chevron, have made major investments, with the natural gas sector being a priority. In December 2005, the Central Bank of Bangladesh projected GDP growth around 6.5%. In order to enhance economic growth, the government set up several export processing zones to attract foreign investment. These are managed by the Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority.
One significant contributor to the development of the economy has been the widespread propagation of microcredit by Muhammad Yunus (awarded the Nobel peace prize in 2006) through the Grameen Bank. By the late 1990s, Grameen Bank had 2.3 million members, along with 2.5 million members of other similar organisations.
Main article: Tourism in Bangladesh
Cox’s Bazar is the longest natural unbroken sea beach in the world.
Tourism sector in Bangladesh has experienced massive growth in recent years. Majority of growth is contributed by local tourists. It is believed to be a major tourist destination if properly advertised. Nonetheless, few government and private initiatives have been taken to attract foreign tourists.
The official Tourism Logo of Bangladesh, used to promote the tourist attractions in the country.
Though small in area, Bangladesh is quite rich in heritage with numerous historical and archeological sites. It has the longest natural unbroken sea beach and five world heritage sites. Among those are famous eighty one domed Shat Gombuj Mosque in Bagerhat, made by great Muslim saint Khan Jahan Ali in the 15th century; world’s largest Mangrove forest Sundarbans which is also renowned for its world famous Royal Bengal Tiger.
There are several exotic archaeological sites in the northern parts of Bangladesh, including the temple city Puthia in Rajshahi; the largest and most ancient archaeological site,Mahasthangarh in Bogra; Among the best known Buddhist viharas in the Indian Subcontinent and one of the most important archeological sites in the country, Paharpur in Naogaon, declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985; Kantaji Temple, the most ornamental terracota Hindu temple in Bangladesh and many rajbaris or palaces of old zamindars.
In the north-eastern parts of Bangladesh, is a favorite hub because of its wide range of natural diversity consisting of green carpet of tea plants on small hillocks, natural falls and haors. Natural reserved Lauchara forest is also a great attraction. Migratory birds in winter, particularly in the haor areas, are also very attractive in this area. .</ref>
 Next mega-projects
Bangladesh government is planning for construction of the largest deep sea port in South Asia at Sonadia Island. The 500 billion taka project will be completed in multiple phases and enable Bangladesh to service the whole region as a maritime transport and logistics hub. India, China, Bhutan, Nepal and other neighbouring countries will be able to take full advantage of the strategic location and Bangladesh’s LDC status for exporting their goods, which are manufactured in Bangladesh.
Furthermore, with $7.5 billion a new international airport will be constructed too, which will be South Asia’s largest airport. The airport is being modelled on Thailand’s Suvarnabhumi Airport in size and capacity.
To ease the chaotic traffic congestion in the capital Dhaka the government plans to construct more expressways, freeways, flyovers. There is a plan to build a overhead Rapid transit called Dhaka Metro, but the progress is slow and controversial because of contracts and agreements.
Recently the government of Bangladesh signed a deal with a Chinese company to provide high-speed modern DEMU trains and is also going to construct metro rail system and high-speed electric powered inter city rail network. More airports, bridge (such as the multi-billion Padma bridge project) national highways are also being constructed to facilitate trade and regional development.
See also: Bengali people
|Source: OECD/World Bank|
The population of Bangladesh at 15/03/2011 is 142.3 million (census 2011 results; this is a preliminary figure which has been disputed by the UN and now by Bangladeshis themselves), much less than recent (2007–2010) estimates of Bangladesh’s population range from 158 to 170 million and it is the 8th most populous nation in the world. In 1951, the population was 44 million. It is also the most densely populated large country in the world, and it ranks 11th in population density, when very small countries and city-states are included. A striking contrast is offered by Russia which has a slightly smaller population spread over a land area that is 120 times larger than Bangladesh. Bangladesh’s population growth was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when the country swelled from 65 to 110 million. With the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, the growth rate had slowed. The population is relatively young, with 60% being 25 or younger and 3% being 63 or older. Life expectancy is 63 years for both males and females.
The overwhelming majority of Bangladeshis are ethnic Bengali, constituting 98% of the population. The remainder are mostly Biharis and indigenous tribal groups. There is also a small but growing population of Rohingya refugees from Burma around Cox’s Bazaar, which Bangladesh seeks to repatriate to Burma. The indigenous tribal peoples are concentrated in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the southeast. There are 13 tribal groups located in this region, the largest being the Chakma. The Hill Tracts region has been a source of unrest and separatism since and before the inception of Bangladesh. Outside the Hill Tracts, the largest tribal groups are the Santhals and Garos (Achiks), while smaller groups include the Kaibartta, Meitei, Mundas, Oraons, and Zomi.
Nearly all Bangladeshis speak Bengali as their mother tongue as it is the official language. It is an Indo-Aryan language of Sanskrit origin with its own script. English is used as a second language among the middle and upper classes. English is also widely used in higher education and the legal system. Historically, laws were written in English and were not translated into Bengali until 1987 when the procedure was reversed. The Bihari population speaks Urdu, which was also the language associated with the government prior to separation from Pakistan.
 Health and education
Teacher Student Centre
Health and education levels remain relatively low, although they have improved recently as poverty (31% at 2010) levels have decreased. Most Bangladeshis continue to live on subsistence farming in rural villages. For those in rural areas, village doctors with little or no formal training constitute 62% of the healthcare providers practicing modern medicine and the formally trained providers are occupying a mere 4% of the total health workforce. The health seeking pattern of the villagers show that nearly 70% of the patients who consulted a healthcare provider for curative services, contacted a village doctor. Showing clearly that village doctors are a major player in the healthcare system. As such, health problems abound, springing from poor water quality and prevalence of infectious diseases. The water crisis is acute, with widespread bacterial contamination of surface water and arsenic contamination of groundwater. Common diseases such as Malaria, Leptospirosis and dengue were rampant in Bangladesh. In 2009, deaths due to Tuberculosis amongst the HIV-negative was 51 per 100 000 population, and prevalence of Tuberculosis was 425 per 100 000 population. The case detection rate for all forms of Tuberculosis is at 44% in 2009. Moreover, the number of cases of Malaria reported in 2009 was 79853 and cases of Leprosy reported was 5239 in 2009 and 3848 in 2010.
Child malnutrition in Bangladesh is amongst the highest in the world. Two-thirds of the children, under the age of five, are under-nourished and about 60% of them, who are under six, are stunted. More than 45 percent of rural families and 76 percent of urban families were below the acceptable caloric intake level. Malnutrition is passed on through generations as malnourished mothers give birth to malnourished children. According to the World Bank, about one-third of babies in Bangladesh are born with low birth weight, increasing infant mortality rate, and leads to increasing risk of diabetes and heart aliments in adulthood. According to UNICEF, one neonate dies in Bangladesh every three to four minutes; 120 000 neonates die every year.
In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World’s Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Bangladesh is 340. This is compared with 338.3 in 2008 and 724.4 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 55 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5’s mortality is 57. The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal health. In Bangladesh the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 8 and 1 in 110 shows us the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women. 
The poor health conditions in Bangladesh is attributed by the lack of healthcare and services provision by the government. The total expenditure on healthcare as a percentage of their GDP was only 3.35% in 2009, according to a World Bank report published in 2010. The number of hospital beds per 10 000 population is 4. The General government expenditure on healthcare as a percentage of total government expenditure was only 7.9% as of 2009 and the citizens pay most of their health care bills as the out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of private expenditure on health is 96.5%.
The literacy rate in Bangladesh rose to 56.5% in 2009. There is some gender disparity, though, as literacy rates are 62% among men and 51% among women, according to a 2008 UNICEF estimate. Among the most successful literacy programs are the Food for education (FFE) introduced in 1993, and a stipend program for women at the primary and secondary levels.
The main religion practiced in Bangladesh is Islam (89.7%), but a significant percentage of the population adheres to Hinduism (9.2%). The majority of Muslims are Sunni. Many people in Bangladesh practice Sufism, as historically Islam was brought to the region by Sufi saints. There are also followers of the Deobandi movement, and Ahle Hadith. The largest gathering of Muslims in the country is the Bishwa Ijtema, held annually by the Tablighi Jamaat. Ethnic Biharis are predominantly Shia Muslims. There are also a small number of Muslims, numbering some 100,000 belonging to the Ahmadiyya community. Sufi influences in the region go back many centuries. Other religious groups include Buddhists (0.7%, mostly Theravada), Christians (0.3%, mostly of the Roman Catholic denomination), and Animists (0.1%). Bangladesh has the fourth largest Muslim population after Indonesia, Pakistan, and India, with over 135 million. Bangladesh was founded as a secular state, but Islam was briefly made the state religion. But in 2010, the High Court held up the secular principles of the 1972 constitution. The High Court also strengthened its stance against punishments by Islamic edict (fatwa), following complaints of brutal sentences carried out against women by extra-legal village courts.
 Malnutrition in Bangladesh
Malnutrition in Bangladesh has been a persistent problem for the poverty-stricken country. The World Bank estimates that Bangladesh is ranked 1st in the world of the number of children suffering from malnutrition In Bangladesh, 26% of the population are undernourished and 46% of the children suffers from moderate to severe underweight problem. 43% of children under 5 years old are stunted. One in five preschool age children are vitamin A deficient and one in two are anemic.
 Causes of Malnutrition
Most terrain of Bangladesh is low-lying and is prone to flooding. A large population of the country lives in areas that are at risk of experiencing extreme annual flooding that brings large destruction to the crops. Every year, 20% to 30% of Bangladesh is flooded. Floods threaten food security and affect agricultural production that causes food shortage.
The health and sanitation environment also affects malnutrition. Water supply, hygiene and sanitation has direct impacts on infectious diseases, such as malaria, parasitic diseases, and schistosmiasis. People are exposed to both water scarcity and poor water quality. Groundwater is often found to contain high arscenic concentration. Sanitation coverage in rural areas was only 35% in 1995. Almost one in three people in Bangladesh defecates in the open among the poorest families. Only 32% of the latrines in rural areas hit the international standards for a sanitary latrine. People are exposed to feces in their environment daily. Immune system falls and the disease processes exaverbate loss of nutrients, which worsens malnutrition. The diseases also contribute through the loss of apetitite, lowered absorption of vitamins and nutrients, and loss of nutrients through diarrhoea or vomiting.
Unemployment and job problem also lead to malnutrition in Bangladesh. In 2010, the unemployment rate was 5.1%. People do not have working facilities all year round and they are unable to afford the minimum cost of a nutritious diet due to the unsteady income.
 Effects of Malnutrition in Bangladesh
 Health effects
Undernourished mothers often give birth to infants who will have difficulty growing up and developing into a healthy teenager. They develop health problems such as wasting, stunting, underweight, anemia, night blindness and iodine deficiency. As a result, Bangladesh has a high child mortality rate and is ranked 57 in the under-5 mortality rank.
 Economic effects
As 40% of the population in Bangladesh are children, malnutrition and its health effects among children can potentially lead to a lower educational attainment rate. Only 50% of an age group of children in Bangladesh managed to enrol into secondary school education. This would result in a low-skilled and low productivity workforce which would affect the economic growth rate of Bangladesh with only 3% GDP growth in 2009.
 Efforts to combat malnutrition
Many programmes and efforts have been implemented to solve the problem of malnutrition in Bangladesh. UNICEF together with the government of Bangladesh and many other NGOs such as Helen Keller International, focus on improving the nutritional access of the population throughout their life-cycle from infants to the child-bearing mother. The impacts of the intervention are significant. Night blindness has reduced from 3.76% to 0.04% and iodine-deficiency among school-aged children has decreased from 42.5% to 33.8%.
Main article: Culture of Bangladesh
Reflecting the long history of the region, Bangladesh has a culture that encompasses elements both old and new. The Bengali language boasts a rich literary heritage, which Bangladesh shares with the Indian state of West Bengal. The earliest literary text in Bengali is the 8th century Charyapada. Medieval Bengali literature was often either religious (for example, Chandidas), or adapted from other languages (for example, Alaol). Bengali literature reached its full expression in the 19th century, with its greatest icons being poets Rabindranath Tagore, Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Kazi Nazrul Islam. Bangladesh also has a long tradition in folk literature, for example Maimansingha Gitika, Thakurmar Jhuli and stories related to Gopal Bhar, Birbal and Molla Nasiruddin.
The musical tradition of Bangladesh is lyrics-based (Baniprodhan), with minimal instrumental accompaniment. The Baul tradition is a distinctive element of Bengali folk music. Numerous other musical traditions exist including Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya, varying from one region to the next. Folk music is often accompanied by the ektara, an instrument with only one string. Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute and tabla. Bangladesh also has an active heritage in North Indian classical music. Similarly, Bangladeshi dance forms draw from folk traditions, especially those of the tribal groups, as well as the broader Indian dance tradition.
Bangladesh produces about 80 films a year. Mainstream Hindi films are also quite popular. Around 200 daily newspapers are published in Bangladesh, along with more than 500 periodicals. However, regular readership is low at just under 15% of the population. Bangladeshis listen to a variety of local and national radio programs like Bangladesh Betar. Four private FM radio stations named (Radio Foorti, ABC Radio, Radio Today, Radio Amar) are popular among urban youths. International Bengali-language broadcasts include BBC Bangla and Voice of America. The dominant television channel is the state-owned Bangladesh Television, but in the last few years, privately owned channels have developed considerably.
The culinary tradition of Bangladesh has close relations to nearby North-East Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine as well as having its own unique traits. Rice, and fish are traditional favorites. Biryani is a favourite dish of Bangladesh and this includes egg biryani, mutton biryani and beef biryani. Bangladeshis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, some common ones being Rôshogolla, Rasmalai, Rôshomalai, chômchôm and kalojam.
The sari (shaŗi) is by far the most widely worn dress by Bangladeshi women. A guild of weavers in Dhaka is renowned for producing saris from exquisite Jamdani muslin. The salwar kameez (shaloar kamiz) is also quite popular, and in urban areas some women wear western attire. Among men, western attire is more widely adopted. Men also wear the kurta-paejama combination, often on special occasions, and the lungi, a kind of long skirt for men.
Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha, being the most important holidays in the Islamic calendar, are the subject of major festivals. The day before Eid ul-Fitr is called Chãd Rat (the night of the moon) and is often celebrated with firecrackers. Eid ul-Adha is celebrated in the memory of great sacrifice of Prophet Abraham. Major Hindu festivals are Durga Puja, Kali Puja and Saraswati Puja. Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and Christmas, called Bôŗodin (Great day), are both national holidays. The most important secular festival is Pohela Baishakh or Bengali New Year, the beginning of the Bengali calendar. Other festivities include Nobanno, Poush parbon (festival of Poush) and observance of national days like Shohid Dibosh(International Mother Language Day) and Victory Day.
Main article: Education in Bangladesh
The educational system in Bangladesh is three-tiered and highly subsidized. The government of Bangladesh operates many schools in the primary, secondary, and higher secondary levels. It also subsidizes parts of the funding for many private schools. In the tertiary education sector, the government also funds more than 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission.
Primary (from grades 1 to 5), Secondary (from grades 6 to 10), Higher Secondary (from grades 11 to 12) and tertiary. The five years of lower secondary education concludes with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of Higher Secondary or intermediate training, which culminate in a Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) Examination. Education is mainly offered in Bengali, but English is also commonly taught and used. A large number of Muslim families send their children to attend part-time courses or even to pursue full-time religious education, which is imparted in Bengali and Arabic in madrasahs.
Bangladesh conforms fully to the Education For All (EFA) objectives, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and international declarations. Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.
Universities in Bangladesh are mainly categorized into three different types: Public university (government owned and subsidized), Private University (private sector owned universities), and International University (operated and funded by international organizations )
Bangladesh has some thirty public and forty-five private universities. National University has the largest enrolment amongst them and University of Dhaka (estd.1921)is the oldest university of the country. The another prominent university is the Jahangirnagar University. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology is oldest and prominent engineering university in Bangladesh and well known in south Asia. Bangladeshi universities are accredited by and affiliated with the University Grants Commission (UGC), a commission created according to the Presidential Order (P.O. No 10 of 1973) of the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
Sher-e-Bangla Cricket Stadium
Main article: Sports in Bangladesh
Cricket enjoys a passionate following in Bangladesh and it is the most popular sport followed by football (soccer). The national cricket team participated in their first World Cup in 1999, and the following year was granted elite Test cricket status. But they have struggled to date, recording only three Test match victories, one against Zimbabwe in 2005 and the other two in a series win of 2–0 against the West Indies in 2009. In July 2010, they celebrated their first ever win over England in any form of match. Later in 2010, they managed to whitewash New Zealand for the first time in history. In 2011, Bangladesh successfully co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka.
They participated at the Asian Games 2010 in Guangzhou, defeating Afghanistan to claim their Gold Medal in the first ever cricket tournament held in the Asian Games. Hadudu (Kabaddi) is the national sport of Bangladesh. Other popular sports include field hockey, tennis, badminton, handball, basketball, volleyball, chess, shooting, angling and carrom. The Bangladesh Sports Control Board regulates 29 different sporting federations.